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Movies of cellular slime moulds (2)

Links to movies in QuickTime (mac, unix) and avi (wondows) formats (approx. size in kilobytes in parentheses)
and to serial photographs (roughly 1/20 the file size of movies).
Shown in parentheses at the end of each explanation are intervals between frames, duration, and field width (or scale bar).

Growth phase to aggregation and slug migration

Dictyostelium discoideum QuickTime
avi (630)
photos
Spores of Dictyostelium discoideum were inoculated in the centre of the plate on which bacteria had been evenly spread. The spores germinate to give rise to amoeboid cells, which feed on the bacteria and multiply. They gradually spread outwards where food is plenty, while in the inner region where bacteria have been consumed, the slime mould cells start to aggregate, and eventually form fruiting bodies. Movie starts at 3 days after inoculation. (1 h, 70 h, 8 cm) (c04)

Germination and feeding

D. mucoroides feeding on bacteria QuickTime
avi (700)
Slime mould cells extend small protrusions to capture bacteria, but this could result in simply pushing the bacteria away if there are not many bacteria around. Feeding seems much more efficent if bacteria are trapped in a space between slime mould cells. Shown are Dictyostelium mucoroides cells. (5 sec, 6 min 30 sec, 46 micrometres) (v08)
D. mucoroides feeding on bacteria QuickTime
avi (1000)
Slime mould cells are able to engulf rather big objects, but the long bacterium shown in this movie was a bit too big for them to eat. Dictyostelium mucoroides. (10 sec, 29 min 10 sec, 30 micrometres) (v09)

The following 3 movies are of Acrasis rosea, which is quite different from other slime moulds. (-->more)

Acrasis germination QuickTime
avi (890)
photos
Germination of Acrasis rosea cells from spores. (10 sec, 23 min 20 sec, 0.12 mm, scale bar: 10 micrometres) (v06-1)
Acrasis germination QuickTime
avi (1400)
Germination of Acrasis rosea. More basal part of the same fruiting body as the one shown above. Six spores can be seen to germinate in the movie. Amoeboid cells of this species often get into empty spore cases as if they are looking for something. (10 sec, 18 min 40 sec, 0.14 mm) (v06-2)
Acrasis feeding on yeast cells QuickTime
avi (550)
photos
An Acrasis rosea cell feeding on budding yeast, which is their favourite food. (4 sec, 6 min 9 sec, 0.08 mm) (v07)

Cell aggregation and propagating waves

Dictyostelium discoideum streams QuickTime
avi (560)
Propagating waves have been extracted by subtracting the image 1 min before each image. A spiral wave is clearly seen in the bottom of the field towards the right. Dictyostelium discoideum. (30 sec, 40 min, 3.4 mm) (a04)
Dictyostelium discoideum streams QuickTime
avi (700)
Aggregating cells sometimes form a ring of rotating cells. Rings of cells may arise from spiral aggregation, or from rotating mounds. A ring eventually collapses into a rotating mound, or ... (next movie)
(30 sec, 40 min, 3.4 mm) (a05)
Dictyostelium discoideum streams QuickTime
avi (700)
... if the ring is large, the cells accumulate somewhere of the ring, where they form a mound and a slug. In these movies, the right-hand side is differential pictures to show the waves of chemotactic signals. (30 sec, 40 min, 3.4 mm) (a06)
Dictyostelium lacteum aggregation QuickTime
avi (610)
photos
Aggregation of the small dictyostelid slime mould D. lacteum is somewhat different from that of larger species. Starved cells first aggregate without forming any streams, but when slugs start to be formed in the centre of aggregation, streams develop from the centre. (10 min, 13 h 20 min, 1.22 mm) (a07)
Dictyostelium polycephalum aggregation QuickTime
avi (710)
photos
Starved cells of D. polycephalum often aggregate as a sheet of cells rather than forming compact streams. Later, streams may appear at the periphery of the aggregate. (4 min, 4 h, 1.5 mm) (a08)

Slug migration

Dictyostelium discoideum slug QuickTime
avi (400)
Dictyostelium discoideum. Slender slugs like this one often move their head up and down during migration. Length/width of this slug: ca. 0.8/0.1 mm. Approx speed 0.8 mm/h. (1 min, 1 h 16 min, 1.9 mm) (s02)
Dictyostelium polycephalum slug QuickTime
avi (370)
photos
Dictyostelium polycephalum makes very thin and long migrating slugs. Like D. discoideum, they do not make a stalk during migration. Branching in the aerial part of a slug as seen in the movie is uncommon. Camera angle was changed at frame 39. Length/width of the slugs: ca. 3.8/0.14 mm and 2.5/0.07 mm. Approx speed 1.2 and 0.8 mm/h. (8 min, 7 h, 3.9 mm) (s11)
Dictyostelium polycephalum slugs QuickTime
avi (830)
photos
Slugs of Dictyostelium polycephalum at low magnification. Formation of 2 groups of slugs can be seen (slightly out of focus) near the bottom. In the centre, a small slug can be seen to disintegrate. In this species, disintegration of a slug back to preaggregation state is not rare. (20 min, 38 h 40 min, 8.4 mm) (s13)
Polysphondylium violaceum slug migration QuickTime
avi (280)
A migrating slug of Polysphondylium violaceum viewed from side. Length/width of this slug: ca. 1.1/0.16 mm. Approx speed 1.1 mm/h. (2 min, 1 h 28 min, 1.6 mm) (s01)
Polysphondylium violaceum slug migration QuickTime
avi (280)
photos
Migrating slugs of many slime mould species move towards blue-green light (phototaxis). This movie shows migrating slugs of Dictyostelium giganteum changing their directions of movement in response to changes in the light source position. The direction of the light source is indicated by white rectangles. Central wavelength of stimulation light: 450 nm, light for filming: >750 nm. (4 min, 5 h 36 min, 7.2 mm) (s12)
Dictyostelium rosarium slug migration QuickTime
avi (1200)
photos
Migrating slug of Dictyostelium rosarium viewed from side. Slugs of this species leaves cell clumps at regular intervals on the stalk during migration. These cells soon become spores. (2 min, 6 h, 3.7 mm) (s20)

Fruiting body formation

Dictyostelium purpureum fruiting QuickTime
avi (620)
photos
Fruiting body formation of Dictyostelium purpureum. This species makes purple spores. This fruiting body is slanted towards a light source in the left because of phototaxis. (8 min, 12 h, 1.4 mm) (s05)
Dictyostelium purpureum sporulation QuickTime
avi (240)
photos
Mature spores of D. purpureum are purple. On a white background, the process of spore coloration can be seen. (2 min, 4 h, 1.2 mm) (s06)
Dictyostelium minutum culmination QuickTime
avi (1000)
photos
Aggregation and fruiting body formation of D. minutum. In this species, aggregated cells often move about en masse before forming fruiting bodies. (12 min, 13 h, 3.2 mm) (s18)
Dictyostelium aureo-stipes culmination QuickTime
avi (2200)
photos
Aggregation and fruiting body formation of D. aureo-stipes. Some of the fruiting bodies show irregular branching. (8 min, 13 h, 3.4 mm) (s14)
Dictyostelium aureo-stipes culmination QuickTime
avi (960)
photos
Branching in D. aureo-stipes fruiting bodies. Formation of irregularly spaced branches is common in this species. The examples shown here show particularly extensive branching. (10 min, 14 h, 1.4 mm) (s15)
Dictyostelium polycephalum culmination QuickTime
avi (620)
photos
Like the whorls of Polysphondylium, the fruiting body of D. polycephalum is composed of small fruiting bodies of equal size. However, because there is no main trunk of the fruiting body, the small fruiting bodies do not grow radially but vertically while remainig bunched together. (8 min, 9 h 20 min, 0.26 mm) (s16)
Acytostelium subglobosum fruiting QuickTime
avi (410)
New Acytostelium produces tiny fruiting bodies. Unlike the majority of the cellular slime mould, its stalk does not contain cells but is made up solely with secreted materials. (1 min, 2 h, 0.5 mm) (s22)
Acrasis rosea fruiting QuickTime
avi (530)
photos
Fruitig bodies of Acrasis rosea. Their shape and construction are very different from dictyostelid slime moulds such as Dictyostelium and Polysphondylium. (-->more) (1 min, 1 h 3 min, 1.1 mm) (s07)

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